The whole procedure of structural planning and configuration requires creative energy and applied thinking as well as in-depth knowledge of handy perspectives, for example, newest outline codes and bye-laws, upheld by sufficient experience, establishment and judgment.
It is underscored that any structure to be developed must fulfill the need productivity for which it is proposed and should be tough for its sought life expectancy. Therefore, the design of any structure is classifies into taking after two principle sorts:-
- Functional Design
- Structural Design
The structure to be constructed ought to basically fill the fundamental need for which it is to be utilized and should have a satisfying look.
The building ought to give conductive environment inside and in addition outside. In this way, the functional arranging of a building must consider the best possible game plans of room/lobbies to fulfill the need of the customer, great ventilation, lighting, acoustics, unhampered view on account of community halls, and film theaters, and so forth.
Once the type of the structure is chosen, the basic outline procedure begins. Structural plan is a workmanship and art of comprehension the conduct of basic individuals subjected to burdens and planning them with economy and the elegance to give a protected, serviceable and strong structure.
Steps in Structural design
1) Structural planning
2) Action of forces and computation of loads.
3) Methods of analysis.
4) Member design.
5) Detailing, Drawing and Preparation of schedules.
- Structural Planning
After obtaining the architectural plan design of the construction units like buildings, the structural planning of the building frame is carried out. It includes ascertaining of the following steps:
- Positioning and orienting of columns.
- Positioning of the beams.
- Spanning of the slabs.
- Layouts of stairs.
- Choosing the right kind of footing.
- Positioning and orientation of columns
Positioning of columns:
These are some of the building principles, which contribute in the determination of the columns positions.
- Columns should suitably be located at (or) near the sides of a building, and at the junction of walls and beams.
- Choose the location of the columns so as to diminish the curving moments in beams.
- Steer clear of the bigger spans of beams.
- Steer clear of big centre-to-centre space between the columns.
- Columns on property line.
Orientation of Columns:
Avoid Projection of Columns
The projection of the columns exterior to the wall in the room has to be shunned as they give not very pleasant appearance and on the other hand also hinder the utilization of floor space, generating problems and issules in the placement of the furniture flush with the wall. The girth of the column is necessary to be kept minimum 200mm to avoid the column from being slim. The distance of the column has to be largely diminished so that the load on column on each one of the floor is lesser and the requirement of big sections for columns do not come.
Orient the column so that depth of the column is restricted in the main plane of bending or is vertical to the chief axis of bending.
This is given to amplify the moment of inertia and thus higher moment resisting capacity. It will diminish the Leff/d ratio as well leading in augmentation in the load carrying capability of the column.
Positioning of Beams:
- Beams shall usually be given below the walls or under the heavy concentrated load to steer clear of the loads straight away coming on slabs.
- Steer clear of the greater spacing of beams from the deflection and cracking criterion. (The deflection differs in proportion with the cube of the span and indirectly with the cube of the density i.e. L3/D3. accordingly, augmentation in span L which leads to the better deflection for bigger span).
Spanning of Slabs:
This is determined by upholding arrangements. When the support system are only on the reverse edges or only in a singular direction, then the slab reacts as a one way uphold slab. Lx < 2.
The sort of balance relies on the load conveyed by the section and the bearing limit of the supporting soil. The dirt under the establishment is more vulnerable to substantial varieties. Indeed, even fewer than one little building the dirt may fluctuate from delicate mud to a hard murum. The nature and properties of soil may change with season and climate, such as swelling in wet climate. Increment in dampness content outcomes in generous loss of bearing limit if there should be an occurrence of specific soils which may prompt to differential settlements. It is important to direct the overview in the zones for soil properties. For surrounded structure, disconnected section footings are ordinarily favored aside from if there should be an occurrence of exists for extraordinary profundities, heap establishments can be a proper decision. On the off chance that sections are firmly divided and bearing limit of the dirt is low, pontoon establishment can be an option arrangement. For a segment on the limit line, a joined footing might be given.
Other processes to follow in structural design after these structural planning are determing action of forces and computation of loads choosing, choosing methods of analysis, member design and then detailing, drawing and preparation of schedules.
Mohamed Mubaris K