Columns are categorized as following four types: 1. Based on Shape, 2. Based on a type of reinforcement, 3. Based on type of loading, 4. Based on slenderness ratio.
In this construction article, detail information is given on the types of columns based on shapes.
Based on Shape
Square or Rectangular Column: These are usually found in the construction of buildings. When the shape of the room remains rectangular or square, these types of columns are suitable.
The process for developing and casting rectangular or square column is very simple as compared to circular ones. This process simplifies the process for working with shuttering and providing support against collapsing because of pressure when the concrete remains in flowable form. The square and rectangular ones are mostly recommended since the cost of casting is low.
Circular column: These are known as specially designed columns and extensively utilized in piling and elevation of the buildings. This type of column is applied in elevation to get rid of edges.
These are also suitable for sit out areas, auditoriums or fire assembly zones. They contain adequate space to obstruct any movement of people. The circular columns are also used as pillars of Bridges.
L- Type Column: They are commonly applied in the corners of the boundary wall and contain similar characteristics of a rectangular or square column. These types of columns are rarely utilized.
T- Type Column: This type of column is applied on the basis of the design requirements and in the erection of bridges, etc. It contains equivalent characteristics of a rectangular or square column.
V- Type Column: It appears in V shape and normally utilized if the room remains in trapezoidal form. It needs greater amount of concrete with reference to the other columns.
Hexagon Column: Hexagon columns are usually the columns which are reformed. It contains six sides and it provides good illustrative view normally applied in elevation. The purpose of this column is to provide a elegant look to the column. It is normally constructed in open verandahs, Auditoriums, Cinema halls etc.
Arch type columns: These are commonly found in the room with arch type shape. It is mainly provided when there is no scope for constructing square or rectangular or circular type of column. It is not recommended since the casting process is very complicated.
Y – Type Columns: These types of columns are normally utilized in building up bridges, flyovers, etc.
Y type Column with Arch: It has similarity with Y-type Column but it contains curved edges or sides. These are normally constructed under the bridges and flyovers where there is an obstruction for building up more columns to resist severe loads on top.