## Building Materials Cost Estimate Sheet

To determine an accurate building materials cost estimate, the estimator should take into consideration various factors.   Different building components like roof, wall, floor etc.; items required like rebar, stud, paint, etc.; materials such as steel, pine, vinyl, etc.; the size and description of the items along with its estimated quantity and unit cost are […]

## Construction Quantities of Materials Estimate

Quantities of materials for the production of required quantity of concrete of given mix proportions can be calculated by absolute volume method. This method is based on the principle that the volume of fully compacted concrete is equal to the absolute volume of all the materials of concrete, i.e. cement, sand, coarse aggregates and […]

## Column Design with Excel

Column Design with Excel RCC Column A column is a very important component in a structure. It is like the legs on which a structure stands. It is designed to resist axial and lateral forces and transfer them safely to the footings in the ground. Columns support floors in a structure. Slabs and beams transfer […]

## Design of stair case with central stringer beam

Design of stair case with central stringer beam R.C.C. STAIRS • Reinforced concrete is perhaps the most suitable of all the said materials for the construction of stairs. • The various advantages of reinforced concrete stairs are given below – They have requisite fire resisting qualities to a great extent – They are durable […]

Concrete Tunnel Design When a tunnel is excavated in all but the most competent of ground conditions it is an inevitable consequence that some form of support will be required if the tunnel is to retain adequate stability and/or maintain sufficient dimensions to facilitate its use in the intended manner. The form and function of […]

## Calculate Quantities of Materials for Concrete

Calculate Quantities of Materials for Concrete Quantities of materials for the production of required quantity of concrete of given mix proportions can be calculated by absolute volume method. This method is based on the principle that the volume of fully compacted concrete is equal to the absolute volume of all the materials of concrete, i.e. […]

## Why Do Civil Engineers Test Compressive Strength of Concrete at 28 Days?

Use the below table to find out the compressive strength gained by concrete after a specified age in relation to the grade of concrete used. Viewing the table, you can discover that concrete gains 16 percent strength in one day, 40 percent in 3 days, 65 percent in 7 days, 90 percent in 14 days and 99 percent strength […]

## Chris Masseys Theory on how the Great Pyramid of Khufu was built

A quick bio on the Great Pyramid of Khufu: The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders […]

## Concrete Non-Destructive Testing – Schmidt’s Hammer

The Schmidt Hammer, also known as a Swiss Hammer or Sclerometer, is a portable measuring instrument for testing the elastic properties or force of concrete or stone, especially surface hardness and resistance to penetration. It was invented by the Swiss engineer Ernst O. Schmidt in the early 1950s and introduced to the market by Proceq. […]