Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks, called courses, are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall.
There are several types of bonds normally used in brick masonry.
1. Stretcher bond
2. Header bond
3. English bond
4. Flemish bond.
Stretcher Bond: This bond is sometimes known as running bond and is the simplest bond that is used today. Also it is not suitable as a stand alone structural wall and a structural wall built directly behind it. A stretcher belongs to the longest face of the brick found in the elevation. The brick with size of 190 mm × 90 mm × 90 mm, 190 mm × 90 mm, the face remains the stretcher. In stretcher bond masonry all the bricks are placed in stretcher courses.
The square face of the brick with dimension (9cm x 9cm x 9cm) is known as “header”.
When all the bricks are arranged as headers on the faces of the walls, the bond that is developed is described as “Header Bond”.
Header bond is applicable for developing the walls with full brick thickness which estimates 18cm.
English Bond: An arrangement of bricks such that one course has the short sides of the bricks (headers) facing outwards, and the next course has the long sides of the bricks (stretchers) facing outwards.
This bond has one stretcher between headers, with the headers centred over the stretchers in the course below. Where a course begins with a quoin stretcher, the course will ordinarily terminate with a quoin stretcher at the other end. The next course up will begin with a quoin header. For the course’s second brick, a queen closer is laid, generating the lap of the bond. The third brick along is a stretcher, and is—on account of the lap—centred above the header below. This second course then resumes its paired run of stretcher and header, until the final pair is reached, whereupon a second and final queen closer is inserted as the penultimate brick, mirroring the arrangement at the beginning of the course, and duly closing the bond.
(a) Double Flemish Bond
(b) Single Flemish Bond.
For double flemish bond, both faces of the wall contain flemish look. It means each course comprises of alternate header and stretcher, while single flemish bond outer faces of walls contain flemish appearance but inner faces appear as English bond.