Types of Cement used in Construction Industry

Types of Cement used in Construction Industry

In  addition  to  ordinary  cement,  the  following  are  the  other varieties of  cement.

Acid   Resistance   Cement:   This   is   consists   of   acid resistance  aggregates  such  as  quartz,  quartzite’s,  etc, additive  such  as  sodium  fluro  silicate  (Na 2 SiO 6 )  and aqueous  solution of sodium silicate. This is used for acid- resistant  and  heat  resistant  coating  of  installations  of chemical Industry. By adding 0.5 percent of unseed oil or 2  percent  of  ceresil,  its  resistance  to  water  is  increased and known as acid water resistant cement.

Blast Furnace Cement: For this cement slag as obtained from  blast  furnace  in  the  manufacture  of  pig  iron  and  it contains basic elements of cement, namely alumina, lime and silica. The properties of this cement are more or less the  same  as  those  of  ordinary  cement  and  prove  to  be economical as the slag, which is waste product, is used in its manufacture.

Coloured  Cement:  Cement  of  desired  colour  may  be obtained  by  intimately  mixing  mineral  pigments  withordinary cement. The amount of colouring may vary from 5 to 10 percent and strength of cement if it is exceeds 10 percent. Chromium oxide gives brown, red or yellow for different  proportions.  Coloured  cements  are  used  for finishing  of  floors,  external  surfaces,  artificial  marble, windows

Expanding Cement : This type of cement is produced by adding an expanding medium like sulpho – aluminate and a  stabilizing agent to ordinary cement. Hence this cement expands   where   as   other   cement   shrinks.   Expanding cement  is  used  for  the  construction  of  water  retaining structures  and  also  for  repairing  the  damaged  concrete surfaces.

High  alumina  Cement:  This  cement  is  produced  by grinding  clinkers  formed  by  calcining  bauxite  and  lime. The  total  content  should  not  be  less  than  32  percent  and the ratio by weight of alumina to lime should be between 0.85 and 1.30.

Hydrophobic Cement: This type of cement contains admixtures, which  decreases  the  wetting  ability  of  cement  grains.  The  usual hydrophobic  admixtures  are  acidol  napthene  soap,  oxidized petrolatum  etc  when  hydrophobic  cement  is  used,  the  fire  pores in concrete are uniformly distributed and thus the frost resistance and  the  water  resistance  of  such  concrete  are  considerably increased.

Low  Heat  Cement:  Considerable  heat  is  produced  during  the setting action of cement. In order to reduce the amount of heat,this  type  of  cement  is  used.  It  contains  lower  percentage  of  tri calcium  aluminates  C 3 A  and  higher  percentage  of  dicalcium silicate C 2 s. This type of cement is used for mass concrete works because it processes less compressor strength.

Pozzuolona  Cement:  Pozzuolona  is  a  volcanic  powder  and  the percentage should be between 10 to 30.

Quick  Setting  Cement:    This  cement  is  prepared  by  adding  a small   percentage      aluminum   sulphate   which   reduce   the percentage   of   gypsum   or   retarded   for   setting   action   and accelerating the setting action of cement. As this cement hardness less  than  30  minutes,  mixing  and  placing  operations  should  be completed. This cement is used to lay concrete under static water or running water.

Rapid  Hardening  cement:  This  cement  has  same  initial  and final setting times as that of ordinary cement. But it attains high strength in early days due to

  1. Burning at high temperature.
  2. Increased lime content in cement composition.
  3. Very fine grinding.

 Sulphate  Resisting  Cement:  In  this  cement  percentage  of tricalcium aluminates is kept below 5 to 6 percent and it results in the  increase  in  resisting  power  against  sulphate.  This  cement  is used  for  structure  which  are  likely  to  be  damaged  by  sever alkaline condition such as canal linings, culverts, siphons etc.

White  Cement:  This  is  a  variety  of  ordinary  cement  and  it  is prepared form such raw materials which are practically free from colouring  oxides  of  Iron,  manganese  or  chromium.  For  burning of this cement, oil fuel is used instead of coal. It is used for floor finish; plaster work, ornamental works etc.

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