DAMPNESS PREVENTION METHODS: The following are the precautions to be taken to prevent dampness in buildings, before applying the various techniques. The site should be located on high ground and well-drained soil to safe guard against foundation dampness All the exposed walls should be of sufficient thickness to safeguard against rain protection (minimum 30 cm) […]

Methods of Waterproofing concrete and Advantages

Methods of Waterproofing concrete and Advantages In general, it can be stated that if concrete is made dense and free from cracks, it is watertight. The dense concrete can be obtained by closely adhering the following essentials: Using a hight class Portland cement of guaranteed quality. Taking extreme care to adopt correct grading and proportioning […]


A number of different design methods have been used for reinforced concrete construction. The three most common are working-stress design, ultimate-strength design, and strength design method. Each method has its backers and supporters. For actual designs the latest edition of the ACI Code should be consulted. Beams Concrete beams may be considered to be of […]

Hydrographic Surveying – Methods, Applications and Uses

Hydrographic surveying or bathymetric surveying is the survey of physical features present underwater. It is the science of measuring all factors beneath water that affect all the marine activities like dredging, marine constructions, offshore drilling etc. Hydrographic surveying is mainly conducted under authority concerns. It is mainly carried out by means of sensors, sounding or […]

Methods of Dewatering Excavations at Construction Site

Dewatering of excavations are required at construction sites generally for foundation works. Various methods for dewatering of excavations are described. Firm and sound working conditions are indispensable when construction of buildings, powerhouse, dams, and other structures has to be executed. These structures not only require a dry base for their foundations but also a good […]

Trenchless Technology in Construction and their Methods

The concept trenchless technology is a word used to describe a set or family of activities that are employed in construction work or in civil engineering. The set of works involves activities or techniques for making holes or conduit renovation or underground activity without disturbing the surface. Trenchless technology is widespread in various areas that […]

Underwater Concreting Method – Tremie Method Process and other Techniques

There are several methods to carry out underwater concreting such as tremie method, pumping methods, preplaced aggregate concrete etc. which are described. The underwater concreting techniques designed mostly to prevent cement washout. These methods did not obtain the full purpose of avoiding cement wash out at early stages of using under water concreting apart from […]