ELEMENTS OF A COST ESTIMATE

Quantity Takeoff: The foundation for a successful estimate relies upon reliable identification (takeoff) of the quantities of the various materials involved in the project. Labor Hours: Labor hour amounts can be developed by crew analysis or applied on a unit man-hour basis. The use of a labor dollar per unit of work (ex: $15 per […]

Elements Of a Building

Every family needs a building to reside. Apart from residential purposes buildings are required for educational, institutional, business, assembly and for industrial purposes. Buildings are required for the storage of materials also. In this article basic requirements of buildings are presented and then planning of the building with respect to orientation, utility of space, energy efficiency […]

Drawing Furniture Elements by Using the Perspective

Drawing furniture is art connected job that should take care of the functionality besides the element’s beauty. The perspective is mainly due to the apparent discrepancy between the perception of man of the phenomena of objective reality and the problems of its reproduction in graphic images. A train line located in a plain seems to […]

Elements of the moulds used for the formation of structural reinforced concrete

The elements of the moulds used for the formation of structural reinforced concrete members are separated in four categories: 1. Surface elements or planking 2. Horizontal bearing elements or beams 3. Scaffolds or staging 4. Accessories like connectors The mould elements might be conventional or industrialized. The former are mainly made out of natural timber […]

Why Plastic Elements are used in Concrete Cover?

The use of reinforced concrete with steel rebar is increased after the invasion of environment factors on the constructions (Why Plastic Elements are used in Concrete Cover?). There is a need for concrete cover between the distance of the surface of concrete to the first level of bar. That is called Armator and is main parameter […]