Sandwich-voided slabs

In reality, sandwich-voided slabs are ribbed slabs with a slab placed both on their upper and lower surface. Sandwich slabs may have the disadvantage of a larger weight compared to the ribbed ones but on the other hand, they have the advantage that their spans and supports behave in the same proper way. Their construction […]

Industrial stirrups – stirrup cages

Industrial stirrups – stirrup cages The most complex, hard and time consuming part of the reinforcement implementation is the placement of stirrups. In the duration of this process a large amount of time is being spent and the biggest mistakes are being made. The industrialization of such a complicated and diverse procedure that traditionally was […]

Foundation cases

(a) Foundation of composite elements The composite elements, in the case of spread footing foundation, require one unified spread footing. In order to comprehend the reinforcement of composite elements, the following sections regard the reinforcement of the unified footings used in the two characteristic examples of paragraph 3.3 Elevator The three shear walls of the […]

Spread Footings and the Details Before Construction

Spread footings Paragraph 1.2.5 provides all information regarding spread footings. The following example con-cerns a simple spread footing with its footing shaped like a box. The spread footing behaves like an inverted cantilever with loads applied in the upward direc-tion. As a rule, a spread footing is a quite rigid element therefore, the applied soil […]

Download Checklist for Tiling (Wall dadoing/flooring)

  TILING to cover the surface from external and act as waterproof membrane. Here some important points to follow on before,during and after tiling listed out below: BEFORE TILING 1 Check for any additions & alterations 2 Cleaning slab off loose mortar/ material 3 Check for levels, Button marking, Mortar thickness 4 Availability of Material – […]

Car Autocad 2d Blocks

Collection of autocad 2d blocks free download car in plan and elevation view CAD Blocks Landscape Design CAD Block,Keywords:landscape drawing,landscape design,best landscape,landscape architecture Dynamic blocks Block unit Color Layer Linetype Linetype scale Lineweight Material Name Object name Plot style Position Rotation Scale X Scale Y Scale Z Unit factor A dynamic block has flexibility and intelligence. […]


Concrete or plastic concrete is a freshly mixed material which can be molded into any shape. The relative quantities of cement, aggregates and water mixed together, control the properties of concrete in wet state as well as in hardened state. For a long time, concrete was considered to be very durable material requiring a little or no maintenance. […]


Optimizing long-span girders can save scares resources.  The following are a few conceptual options to optimize girders.  Optimization for a real project requires careful evaluation of alternate options, considering  interdisciplinary aspects along with purely structural ones. 1  Moment diagram, stepped to reflect required resistance along girder 2  Steel girder with plates welded on top of […]

Wind effect – Structural Design

A building in the path of wind causes wind pressure which in turn causes force, shear, and overturn moment at each level that must be resisted, following a load path to the foundations (wind wall pressure transfers to horizontal diaphragms, then to shear walls, finally to foundation).  Wind pressure times tributary area per level causes  […]